At the level of ethics, it could be said that all religions teach the same basic human values. In some way, all faiths urge people to be more loving, altruistic, morally upright, and courageously truthful. The “Universal Rule” appears in some form in every religion. In Sikh scripture, we humans are said to be beset by five ‘enemies” which hound us from within: lust, anger, greed, ignorance, and egotism. To overcome these evil tendencies, methods differ, but it can be argued that the goal of escaping from our inner evils is the same in all religions.
Many scientists are also now observing that the application of science without ethics has led to widespread destruction of the natural environment, and that technological advancement has not in itself brought happiness. This observation has indicated that application of ethics as a whole in the world and all religions are important element. In another aspect, in the course of the 21st century devastated world of living, several environmental preservation movements are also supported by some religious thinkers, especially in Christianity and Hinduism as fundamental elements to the Christian ethics.
We observe that ethical teachings of all world major religions are based on their fundamental teachings of beliefs. Therefore, an extensive comprehension of basic ethical connotation needs to engage with the understanding of fundamental/basic beliefs and doctrines of each religion. For example, in Hinduism and Buddhism (those of non-theistic religions), the fundamental doctrine of beliefs of a man is typical: Four Goals of life, Four Stages of life, and the Three Ways. The similar argument would be rightly applied to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In these theistic religions the basic concept of God (i.e. monotheistic existence) and direct revelation from God is crucial to a believer’s ethical life and in its application.
Beyond doctrines, ethics, and spiritual practices, many contemporary scholars are coming to the conclusion that there is an underlying experiential unity among religions. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, for instances, posits that all religions share a common source from which their revelations have come. Christian theologian John Hick proposes that the various religions are culturally different responses to the same one reality.
Scholars of comparative religions have discovered that one central ethical teaching is found in almost identical form in all major religions:
“This is the sum of duty: Do nothing unto others which would cause you pain if it were done to you”.--Hinduism (Mahabharata 5:1517)
“In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self”.--Jainism (Lord Mahavir)
“Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful”.--Buddhism (Udana-Varga, 5:18)
“That nature only is good when it shall not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self”.--Zoroastrianism (Dadistan-i-Dinik, 94:5)
“What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow human being. That is the law; all the rest is commentary”.--Judaism (Tulmud, Shabbat 31a)
“Always treats others as you would like them to treat you: That is the Law and the prophets”.--Christianity (Matthew 7:12)
“No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself”.--Islam (Sunnah)
“Do not create enmity with anyone, for God is within everyone”.--Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib 259)
“The foundation is respect for all life”.--Native American (The Great Law of Peace)
Hindu Ethics is categorized into two parts: General Ethics and Special Ethics. General Ethics is, in its nature, more concerned with philosophical and theological conception. Practical Ethics is concerned more with doctrinal and practical applications. The study of Hindu Ethics can follow either the historical or the synthetic method. The historical method consists in analyzing the fundamental positions of Hindu morality in the successive periods and according to the various schools of Hindu thought. The synthetic method consists in retaining the fundamental principles common to all schools and indicating briefly their diverse interpretations in the various schools. Basically ethics in Hinduism rooted in the following foundational grounds of questions: 1) What is man? 2) What is man’s relation to the world? and 3) What is man’s relation to God?
The Hindu view of man is very different from that of Christian. An orthodox Hindu considers the Christian view of man as an illusion. According to the traditional Hindu, human existence is characterized by three different states of consciousness: the waking state, the dreaming state and dreamless sleep. Below is brief analysis.
In the awaking state, I am conscious of my body, of he external objects which I perceive and of the impressions they produce in me. I am spontaneously inclined to believe that I possess a distinct individuality and that the world around me possesses a distinct and objective reality. When I dream, as long as the dream lasts, I am convinced that I move in a real world, that I see, touch and hear real objects distinct from me. But when, on awakening, I remember my dream, I realize that all those ‘objects’ were mere creations of my mind and that the dream-world I was moving in, is purely, subjective and illusory.
In dreamless sleep I have no experience of individual existence and of objective things impressing me. Yet, I go on existing, since, after my sleep, I can say, “I slept soundly”. Moreover, dreamless sleep is a painless state where desires, worries, regrets, anxieties have no place. This seems to indicate that behind and deeper than my usual consciousness as a distinct individual, there lies a changeless principle which is never involved in the vagaries of worldly perceptions, desires and pursuits.
According to Indian thinkers, man cannot be regarded as standing apart from the universe in any way, … They look upon man as just one of the many forms in which the Supreme Being is manifested in this universe. From the point of view of the Absolute, the whole universe is like an immense spectacle which It offers to Itself. The Absolute is the unchangeable Ground of everything and the various modalities: matter, plants, animals, men, and gods, are a kind of magical display which does not affect the serene unity of the Absolute. The idea of a hierarchy of beings, making of man the priest of the universe is foreign to Hindu thought. While man is under the influence of avidya (ignorance), he performs actions for which he is responsible and has only himself to blame for their consequences. Every action which helps to dispel avidya is morally good. In other words, whatever man does in the universe out of attachment for his individual self is bad. Whatever he does out of detachment from his individual self is good.
In the Bhakti or devotional movements, where God is worshipped personally, man and his relations with God are viewed—that some say man is identical with the Supreme only in essence and not in form; others say that there is no such identity. Hence, man’s moral striving, whether it be considered as a pure preparation for his true, spiritual realization or as a real endeavor of religious fidelity, is in all schools related to some basic tenets, among which the most important are the doctrine of karma and rebirth, the doctrine of renunciation and the doctrine of the four ends of human existence.
Human life cannot reach the high plane of niskama karma without struggle. The deep impression left by previous lives, the tendencies of the empirical self are too strong to be controlled by a single act of the will. Hinduism distinguishes three types of men according to the predominant influence of one of the qualities (gunas) of matter. When tamas (darkness) predominates, man takes good for evil and evil for good. His activity is dull, stubborn and malicious. When rajas (energy) predominates, man cannot discern clearly between good and evil and his activity is purposeful, self-centered and passionate. When sattva (truth and light) predominates, man clearly sees what is right and what is wrong, and his activity is selfless, persevering and unaffected by success or failure.
In the almost parallel manner, Hinduism speaks of different aims of human life (purusartha). If man seeks only the satisfaction of his instincts and sensuous desires, his aim in life is kama(pleasure). If he strives towards power and property, his aim in life is artha (wealth). But he may rather pursue the ideal of a morally sound existence, and then his aim in life is dharma (duty). Finally, rising above the bondage of matter and its three gunas, he may fix his eyes on the supreme liberation from all bondage and rebirth, and then his aim in life is moksa (liberation). All described lines in General Hindu Ethics shows that Hinduism possesses sound ethical principles which are not very different from the moral sense inspired by natural law, or even, in the Gita, from the Christian teaching concerning selfless activity.
We will go on to the second part of Ethics in Hindu--Special Ethics. Hindu morality is not a matter of principles alone; it is primarily a matter of practical conduct, largely determined by the social environment. Although the Law of Karma makes of human life a very individual affair, the Dharma Sutras are emphatic about the social duties of every Hindu. Those Dharma Sutras and all the literature deriving from them are not concerned with theories on Ethics, but with the practical code of behavior. They have played an important role in the shaping of Hindu life and society. Thus Ethics in Hinduism is inseparably related with the concept of Dharma, Caste System, and the Four Stages of Life.
Although the word dharma has come to mean ‘religion’ in modern Indian languages, its classical meaning is ‘righteousness’ or good ethical practice according to the prescriptions handed down from age to age by the virtuous ancestors. Thus understood, dharma designates the traditionally established order, which includes all duties, whether individual, social or religious. It puts men on their guard against the three great moral pitfalls: kama(lust), lobha (covetousness) and krodha (anger). Dharma also enjoins fundamental virtues. The eight good qualities of the soul are: compassion for all creatures, patience, freedom from discontent, purity, earnest endeavor, auspicious thought, freedom from avarice, freedom from envy (Gautama Dharma Sutra). Bhagavadgita XVI, 1-3 describes the virtuous: “These are the qualities of one who is born to gain divine estate: fearlessness, rectitude, purity, perseverance in the path of knowledge and discipline, charity (dana), self-control (dama), sacrifice, study of sacred precepts, straight-forwardness, doing no harm (ahima), truthfulness, equanimity, detachment (tyaga), peace and no malice, compassion for all, sobriety, gentleness, modesty, guilelessness, fervor, forgiveness (ksama), steadiness, cleanness, freedom from hatred and pride”.
Besides such general prescriptions contained in Dharma, every man, according to his status, has his particular dharma (svadharma), which is determined by the place he occupied society. The decisive factor of a Hindu’s svadharma is the Caste. The distinctive characters which may be said to apply to all castes are:
(1) A caste is a closed social group theoretically based on heredity: everyone belongs to the caste in which he is born.
(2) It possesses an independent organization, a head and a council, which may meet on special occasions.
(3) It has common festivals and common usages particularly in matters of marriage and food.
(4) Its members usually practice the same profession or trade, or at least related professions.
(5) It has the power to impose penalties on its members, the most grievous being expulsion from the caste.
Traditional account of the origin of caste goes back to Rgveda, X, 90: “One fourth of the Supreme Being constitutes all beings, while three fourths of Him are immortal and stand above. With the one fourth below, He extended on all sides into the animate and the inanimate… His face became the Brahman. His arms were made into the Ksatriya. His thighs became the Vaisya. From His feet the Sudra was born”. The Sanskrit word for those four classes is varna(color) and seems to indicate that the racial element in the distinction between the four classes played an important part. The Brahman (white color) was assigned the following duties: studying, teaching, sacrificing, assisting others to sacrifice, giving alms and receiving gifts. The Ksatriya (red color) was assigned the following duties: studying, sacrificing, giving arms, using weapons, protecting treasure and life. The Vaisya (yellow color) was assigned the following duties: studying, sacrificing, giving arms, cultivating, trading and tending cattle. The Sudra (black color) was given the duty of serving the three other varnas (colors). The first three varnas were the dvijas (twice-born); their members alone were entitled to the rite of initiation (upanayana) and to the wearing of the sacred thread. Outside the pale of the four varnas are the untouchables, whom Gandhi called Harijans (the people of god Hari). They too have divided themselves into a great number of ‘sub-castes’.
The life of the members of the three superior classes, Brahmans, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas, is divided into four states—called the Four Asramas (Life-Stages). This is how the Manusmrti, one of the most famous law-books, prescribes them:
(1) “Let the young man study the Vedas in due order, without breaking celibacy”. This is the state of the bachelor (Brahmacari).
(2) “After studying the Vedas, let him dwell in the house-holder (Grhastha) order”.
(3) “When the householder sees wrinkles (on his face) and whiteness (in his hair) and the son of his son, let him retire to the forest” (Vanaprastha).
(4) “After passing the third portion of his life in the forest and become free of all attachment, let him wander (as an ascetic) during the fourth portion” (Sannyasi).
However, morality in modern Hinduism (especially in India) has been struggling with such traditional Hindu ethics. Traditional outlook, based on the Law of Karma, Caste and the Four-Stages of human life makes passive acceptance of fate rather than a dynamic effort. This has been reformed and tried to change and to up lift the society. The famous verses of the Hitopadesa (Educational Instruction) have been rightly applied: “Just as a chariot cannot move on one single wheel, so also, without human effort, destiny cannot be fulfilled. It is through effort, and not through desire alone that destiny is fulfilled. Deer do not enter the mouth of a sleeping lion”. There have been movements which main concern was to fight against specific social evils sanctioned by ancient tradition, such as the burning of widows, enforced perpetual widowhood, untouchability. For example, Radhakrishnan, whose works was famous in the process of “Hinduism Re-interpreted; and Swami Vivekananda, whose works was praise-worthy in uplifting Indian social life amidst strong traditional Indian Hinduism, are to mention notably.
“Truth is my God”, Gandhi used to say, “and Non-violence is the way to reach Him”. Gandhi’s God is not a person; rather it is a principle. But Gandhi would not quarrel with those who worshipped a personal God. He wrote:
God is that indefinable something which we all feel but which we do not know. To me God is truth and love, God is ethics and morality, God is fearlessness—God is the source of light and life, and yet he is above and beyond all these. God is conscience. He is even the atheism of the atheist. He transcends speech and reason. He is a personal God to those who need his personal presence. He is embodied to those who need his touch. He is purest essence. He simply is to those who have faith. He is all things to all men. (Young India, 5 August 1925).
This is a typically Hindu view. Hinduism is never dogmatic. Gandhi believed, like other Hindus, that every religion is a legitimate way to God for the adherents of that religion. He saw no need for competition between religions, nor any need to change one’s faith. He regarded conversion from one religion to another as pointless, and as disturbing to the harmony of social life.
Hindu Ethics is vast in scope and much related to what is known as Fundamental Principles in Hinduism. The canon of Hinduism is basically defined by what people do rather than what they think. Consequently, far more uniformity of behavior than of belief is found among Hindus, although very few practices or beliefs are shared by all. A few usages are observed by almost all Hindus: reverence for Brahmans and cows; abstention from meat (especially beef); and marriage within the caste (jati), in the hope of producing male heirs. Most Hindus chant the gayatri hymn to the sun at dawn, but little agreement exists as to what other prayers should be chanted. Most Hindus worship Shiva, Vishnu, or the Goddess (Devi), but they also worship hundreds of additional minor deities peculiar to a particular village or even to a particular family. Although Hindus believe and do many apparently contradictory things—contradictory not merely from one Hindu to the next, but also within the daily religious life of a single Hindu—each individual perceives an orderly pattern that gives form and meaning to his or her own life. No doctrinal or ecclesiastical hierarchy exists in Hinduism, but the intricate hierarchy of the social system (which is inseparable from the religion) gives each person a sense of place within the whole.
To be more comprehensive and wider in exploration of basic ethical understanding in Hinduism one needs to investigate Hindus basic beliefs. As stated earlier, the first to do so is the Four Goals of Life. According to Hinduism, there are four goals for life. They are dharma (righteousness), artha (worldly prosperity or material well-being), kama(enjoyment or pleasure), and moksha (liberation). The final end is release from the bonds of flesh and the limitations of death-bound life. To progress towards liberation, one must live one’s life here and now, and that means carrying out the responsibilities of social and family life, which is the pursuit of artha. That also means satisfying the demands of the flesh, which is the pursuit of kama. Both these are legitimate ends, but in their pursuit one should be guided by the overall goal of dharma (righteousness) and the ultimate goal of moksha (liberation).
The second is the Four Stages of Life. Traditional Hinduism divides the life of a man into four stages. The first stage is that of the student. The student is a bachelor. He lives in the house of the guru and, under his guidance, studies the sacred texts. The second stage is that of the householder. This is the important stage. It is the householder who maintains the fabric of society. He now lives with his wife. He discharges his debt to his ancestors by having children. He observes virtues like hospitality and industry, and contributes to the total well-being of society. During the third stage he retires to the forest with his wife, and meditates on the values of life. The fourth (i.e. last) stage is that of the holy stage. Now he renounces the world and all attachments. It is interesting to note that the first three stages are said to be obligatory, i.e. all men experience them, while the last is only optional, not all men reach it.
The third is the Three Ways. The history of Hinduism is the history of man’s search for reality. It is the story of a human quest—the quest for the truth of things. God, for the Hindu, is this reality or truth. There is a famous prayer in the Upanishads which reads:
From the unreal lead me to the real,
From darkness lead me to light,
From death lead me to immortality.
Hinduism, in its higher forms, expresses the human search for reality, light, and immortality. It recognizes three chief ways which the religious person may follow in order to reach this goal. He may follow any or all of them. These ways to God are also known as yogas or disciplines. The word yoga is related to the English word yoke.
1) The first way is the way of good works. It teaches unselfish service as the means of reaching God. Every man has his allotted duty or dharma. Right action consists in the discharging of this dharma. In the Bhagavad Gita Krishna tells Arjuna:
You are entitled only to work, and not to its fruit. So never work for fruit, nor yet desist from work.
Renascent Hinduism rightly emphasizes this way of action. For a long time, Hinduism was considered to be an other-worldly religion. The ideal man, it was believed, is the holy sage, the man who has given up all possessions and all worldly attachments. Today it is action that is stressed, and not the giving up of action. A man like Gandhi, or an institution like the Ramakrishna Mission, is often held up as an example of involvement in the life the world.
2) The second way is that of devotion (bhakti).
3) The third way is the path of knowledge. Such knowledge is more than intellectual understanding, and it includes spiritual insight as well. It starts with the study of the Vedas and other Scriptures. This first stage is followed by a long period of reflection and meditation. The final stage in the growth of knowledge is that of self-realization, when a person becomes aware of his or her unity with God. When this stage is reached, one becomes a jivan-mukta, or liberated soul. It signifies the yoking of our mind to God; it also means the disciplining of our mind and body.
We will not be mistaken if we assume that ethical teachings in Judaism is found largely in the book of Torah and its subsequent extended book known as Talmud. Talmud is a body of Jewish civil and religious law, including commentaries on the Torah, or Pentateuch. The Talmud consists of a codification of laws, called the Mishnah, and a commentary on the Mishnah, called the Gemara. The material in the Talmud that concerns decisions by scholars on disputed legal questions is known as the Halakhah; the legends, anecdotes, and sayings in the Talmud that are used to illustrate the traditional law are known as Haggada. Fundamental challenge to the people of Israel is normally put this way: Man must love and serve God—by imitating His ways. “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your might, and with all your soul” (Dt 6:5).
Originally the civil law of the Israelites, the Torah became the religious law of rabbinic Judaism. Its provisions became the guide for moral conduct for Jews living millennia and thousands of miles from the ancient state. Rabbinic Judaism emphasized the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of Israel under God’s revealed law. It gave enormous emphasis to proper ethical conduct. In detailing Jewish law, the rabbis were outlining an ethical program for Jews. The tradition called for numerous specific actions of both a ritual and a moral nature, but the basic ethical agenda was to analyze each situation to determine proper conduct. Since no two circumstances were fully identical, the study of the Talmud essentially trained the Jew in the principles of analyzing every situation as minutely as possible and fro every conceivable perspective.
Rabbi Simlai expounded: 613 commandments were transmitted to Moses on Mont Sinai. 365 of them are negative commandments (i.e. prohibitions), corresponding to the number of days in the solar year. The remaining 248 are positive commandments (i.e. injunctions), corresponding to the number of limbs in the human body. The four ethical precepts of the Ten Commandments are the greatest impact of the Hebraic morality. Appropriated by Christianity and Islam, the Ten Commandments constitute the moral foundation of most of the Western world.
After Moses, David came and reduced the 613 commandments were to 11 (cf. Ps 15:1-5); Isaiah reduced them to 6 (cf. Is 33:15); Micah reduced them to 3, as it is written, “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord requires of you: To do justice, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God” (cf. Mic 6:8). Isaiah again reduced them to 2. “Thus says the Lord: Keep justice and to do righteousness” (Is 56:1). Amos came and reduced them to 1, as it is written, “Thus says the Lord to the house of Israel: Seek Me and live” (Amos 5:4); and Habakkuk also reduced them to 1, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by his faith” (Hab 2:4).
The Jews believe that God has chosen them to be His special people. Their first duty, therefore, is to obey His Law, and it is the duty of the priests to teach the Law to the people. They believe that Moses received the most important of its rules from God on the holy mountain of Sinai.
The Ten Commandments are the basis of the Law. They state basic human duties:
I am Yahweh your God who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.
- You shall have no other god to set against me.
- You shall not make a carved image for yourself. . . . You shall not bow down to them or worship them.
- You shall not make wrong use of the name of Yahweh your God.
- Remember to keep the Sabbath day holy. . . . The seventh day is a Sabbath of Yahweh your God.
- Honour your father and your mother.
- You shall not commit murder.
- You shall not commit adultery.
- You shall not steal.
- You shall not give false evidence against your neighbors.
- You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, his slave, his slave-girl, his ox, his ass, or anything that belongs to him. (From Ex 20:1-17]
The offering of sacrifice,
The keeping of the feasts,
Matters of marriage and inheritance,
The administration of justice,
The rule of the king,
The conduct of war,
The treatment of slaves, prisoners, and foreigners,
Personal and social hygiene.
In addition to the fundamental commandments there is the Oral Law. The written Law did not, however, answer every question about right conduct or the correct way to worship. So the priests and others continued to give rulings about the Law after the books were written. The Jews called these rulings the ‘Oral Law’. The people who taught the oral law were called Rabbis and Scribes, and those who kept the rules strictly were called Pharisees. We read about them in the Gospels. After the time of Jesus, the work of the Rabbis continued. Their teaching is collected in the great Jewish book called the Talmud. The spirit of their teaching is expressed in little Jewish book called Pirqe Aboth, which was compiled about one hundred years after the time of Jesus from sayings of famous Jewish teachers. It is included in the Talmud. Although it was written a long time ago, it is used and loved by Jews, and special edition was prepared for Jewish soldiers who fought in the British Army in the war of 1939-45. Here are a few extracts from it.
Simon the Just used to say—The world stands upon three things: the Law, Worship, and the showing of kindness.
Hillel said: Be of the disciples of Aaron, one that loves peace, one that loves mankind, one that brings them near to the Law.
Gamaliel said: Study of the Law together with ordinary work is good: labour in them both makes sin fogotten.
Study of the Law without ordinary work ends in failure and causes sin.
Hillel said: Do not separate yourself from the congregation; do not be sure of yourself till the day of your death; do not judge your neighbor until you stand in his place.
Akadja said: Keep in view three things and you will not come into the power of sin. Know where you come from, and where you are going to, and before whom you must give strict account. You came from a drop (of semen): you go to the place of dust, worms, and maggots: you must give strict account before the King of the Kings of Kings, the Holy One, blessed be He.
Judaism is a way of life that endeavors to transform virtually every human action into a means of communication with God. Through this communion with God, the Jew is enabled to make his contribution to the establishment of the Kingdom of God and the brotherhood of man on earth. So far as its adherents are concerned, Judaism seeks to extend the concept of right and wrong to every aspect of their behavior. Jewish rules of conduct apply not merely to worship, ceremonial and justice between man and man, but also to such matters as philanthropy, personal friendships and kindnesses, intellectual pursuits, artistic creation, courtesy, the preservation of health and the care of diet. Teachings and commandments of the Torah, especially—challenges to faith in Torah, circumcision, marriage, parents and children, dietary laws, charity and loving one’s neighbor are to be understood inseparable ethical applications.
To mention some of these Jewish rules of conduct will show a clear look at of them.
“In all your actions, words and thoughts, and at all times, think of yourself as standing before God …”
“Be zealous to read in the Torah regularly, so you will be able to fulfill its precepts. …”
“When you pray, remove all worldly matters from your heart. Set your heart right before God. …”
“Accustom yourself to awaken at dawn and to rise from your bed at the song of the birds. Do not rise …”
“Do not raise your hand against your neighbor. Neither slander nor give false reports of any person. …” “Enjoy neither food nor drink without reciting a blessing before and after. …”
Keeping of the Law and observing it is basic to the ethical life in Judaism. The Rabbis have done much to keep alive the spiritual life of the Jewish people. They taught that the true Jew accepts the Law because of his love for God, and tries to keep every single commandment in it, even those about food, clothing, and work. These have made it difficult for Jews to become full members of the communities amongst whom they live, because their way of life is different from that of others. But their ideal is a great and notable one; it is that men should live pure and humble lives, and that they should love and trust God.
Every day, when they leave or enter their homes, Jews solemnly repeat the declaration which is the heart of their religion:
Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, one Lord, and you must love the Lord your God with all your heart and soul and strength. These commandments which I give you this day are to be kept in your hearts; you shall repeat them to your sons, and speak of them indoors and out of doors, when you lie down and when you rise (Dt 6:4-7).
Buddhist ethical teaching is closely related to the doctrine of karma. Karma consists of a person’s acts and their ethical consequences. Human actions lead to rebirth, wherein good deeds are inevitably rewarded and evil deeds punished. Thus, neither undeserved pleasure nor unwarranted suffering exists in the world, but rather a universal justice. The karmic process operates through a kind of natural moral law rather than through a system of divine judgment. One’s karma determines such matters as one’s species, beauty, intelligence, longevity, wealth, and social status. According to the Buddha, karma of varying types can lead to rebirth as a human, an animal, a hungry ghost, a denizen of hell, or even one of the Hindu gods.
The ultimate goal of the Buddhist path is release from the round of phenomenal existence with its inherent suffering. To achieve this goal is to attain nirvana, an enlightened state in which the fires of greed, hatred, and ignorance have been quenched. The ethic that leads to nirvana is detached and inner-oriented. It involves cultivating four virtuous attitudes, known as the Palaces of Brahma: loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. The ethic that leads to better rebirth, however, is centered on fulfilling one’s duties to society. It involves acts of charity, especially support of the sangha, as well as observance of the five precepts that constitute the basic moral code of Buddhism. The precepts prohibit killing, stealing, harmful language, sexual misbehavior, and the use of intoxicants. By observing these precepts, the three roots of evil—lust, hatred, and delusion—may be overcome. 
Ethics in Buddhism is also deeply rooted in the central teachings: the Four Noble Truths. Life in Buddhism is suffering. This suffering is caused by human’s desire. The most important doctrinal and ethical teaching in Buddhism is to achieve nirvana, the goal. To be able to overcome one must struggle his life with the implementation of the Four Noble Truths in the course of the said suffering. Basic elements to this application are to be mentioned briefly below.
The man who has withdrawn from the world should not approach either of the two extremes. He should not approach the one which is connected with lust through sensuous pleasures, because it is low, foolish, vulgar, ignoble, and profitless. He should not approach the other which is connected with asceticism because it is painful, ignoble, and profitless. Avoiding both these extremes, take the middle road … which brings insight and knowledge, and leads to tranquility, to enlightenment, to peace.
And what is this Middle Road that leads to Peace? It is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Right Views, Right Thought. The Middle Road, revered monks, leads to Peace.
Now, this is the Noble Truth as to sorrow. Earthly existence indeed is sorrowful, decay is sorrowful, disease, death, union with the unpleasing, separation from the pleasing, is sorrowful. The wish which cannot be fulfilled is sorrowful; in brief, to walk the path of desire is sorrowful.
Again, this is the Noble Truth as to the origin of sorrow; the recurring desire which is associated with enjoyment and seeks pleasure everywhere, is the cause of this sorrow. In other words, it is the desire for sense-pleasures, the desire for individual existence, and the desire for self-annihilation.
Again, this is the Noble Truth as to the cessation of sorrow; and to the acquiring of happiness. It is the cessation of this desiring so that no remnant or trace of it remains. It must be abandoned, renounced, and escaped from.
And once more, this is the Noble Truth as to the road which leads to the cessation of sorrow. It is indeed the Noble Eightfold Path.
After these Four Noble Truths became complete, a man shall attain supreme and full enlightenment. He will become aware and fully convinced that his mind was liberated; that existence in its unhappy form had ended; that there would no more be any unhappy survival.
It is worthy to examine briefly the teachings on the Four Noble Truths to see more clearly the ethical values on them.
1. The first Noble Truth is that suffering is a universal fact. The Buddha preached the existence suffering, dukkha. The ordinary meaning of suffering such as misery, distress, despair, agony, suffering of body and mind. It also means change, emptiness, imperfection, conflict.
2. The second Noble Truth states the cause of suffering. The cause of suffering is desire. It is hungering, desiring, and craving for self-satisfaction. Attachment to things is therefore due to ignorance; ignorance leads to desire, and desire to suffering.
3. The third Noble Truth declares that there is a state in which there is complete freedom from suffering and bondage. It is a state of unspeakable joy, happiness, and peace. This state is called nirvana (nibhana).
4. The fourth Noble Truth declares the way that leads to nirvana. It is known as the Noble Eightfold Path. It is also referred to as the Middle Way between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-torture, both of which are profitless. The Middle Way consists of eight duties or principles of conduct which are as follows:
(1) Right Speech--abstaining from untruthfulness, tale-bearing, harsh language, and vain talk.
(2) Right Action--abstaining from killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct.
(3) Right Livelihood--earning a living in a way not harmful to any living thing.
(4) Right Effort--avoiding evil thoughts and overcoming them, arousing good thoughts and maintaining them.
(5) Right Mindfulness--paying vigilant attention to every state of the body, feeling, and mind.
(6) Right Concentration--concentrating on a single object so as to induce certain special states of consciousness in deep meditation.
(7) Right Views--understanding the Four Truths.
(8) Right Thought--freedom from ill-will, lust, cruelty, and untruthfulness.
This Eightfold Path leads to insight and wisdom dispel ignorance. Its fruit is serenity, knowledge, and enlightenment which is nirvana--the state of perfect peace and bliss. Man must work out his own salvation by his own efforts; no one can do for him what he must do for himself. This emphasis on self-effort, self-conquest, self emancipation, is fundamental in the Buddha’s teaching. Thus Buddhism teaches a man to trust himself and summon his powers within him to achieve his goals in life.
There is a logical as well as relational law understood as Moral law in relation to the Buddhist functional ethical teaching. Good actions lead to happiness, and bad actions lead to unhappiness. Motiveless actions do not produce any affective consequences. Moral law involves the adoption of rules, the purification of motives, and ultimately the transcendence of kamma. The adoption of the precepts is the beginning of sila. Sila is moral rules; moral conduct and character; the rules for a moral life to be upheld by Buddhists and their corresponding commitment to avoid evil deeds. Five of these are fundamental and are common to lay followers as well as monks; refraining:
(1) from injury to living things
(2) from taking what is not given
(3) from sexual misconduct
(4) from falsehood
(5) from liquors that induce forgetfulness.
The first four were universally accepted in ancient Indian spirituality and may even be described as universal presuppositions of spiritual culture. Additional rules for the monks included refraining:
(6) from untimely food
(7) from seeing the performance of dancers, musicians, and jesters
(8) from adorning the body
(9) from the use of high and comfortable beds
(10) from accepting gold and silver.
Other lists of silas replace the fifth lay precept with (5) Refraining from slander, and add refraining, (6) From harsh speech, (7) From frivolous talk, (8) From covetousness, (9) From malice and (10) From false views.
The monk is in addition subject to the basic rules called patimokkha, collectively recited at the fortnightly ceremony called uposatha, at which monks who had transgressed were required to confess and accept the punishment prescribed by the local Sangha. Other rules, dealing with such details as the personal goods allowed to be used by monks or their medical treatment in case of illness, were collected in the Vinaya. These gradually became more extensive, and more liberal than those followed by sects such as the Jains and the Ajivakas. The Buddha is said to have charged these sects with tormenting themselves in this life without freeing themselves from suffering in the next. 
Buddhist morality consists in “avoiding evil, promoting the good, and purifying the heart.” Avoiding ascetic self-torment and ritualism, Buddhist morality is distinguished by its moderation, rationality, and introspection. Though rejecting self-mortification, it is an ascetic path inasmuch as it prescribes self-discipline and rejects the worldly end of gratification. As a householder, one lives in the world without pursuing it and cultivates truth, nonviolence, respect for the property of others, and marital fidelity, accepting only the right methods of livelihood and practicing liberality and compassion. The Sermon to Sigala sketches the practices appropriate to a householder, centering on restraint and purification of the heart.”
In Christianity, religion and ethics are inseparable. This inseparable union between religion and ethics in Christianity requires to go beyond personal ethics, and to take up that of religion and social ethics.
The instruction and exhortation of Christian preaching and teaching concern all the themes of doctrine and morals: the love of God and the love of neighbor, the two chief commandments in the ethical message of Jesus (see Matthew 22: 34-40). Application of these commandments to the concrete situations of human life, both personal and social, does not produce a uniformity of moral or political behavior. Many Christians, for example, regard all drinking of alcoholic beverages as sinful, whereas others do not. Christians can be found on both the far left and the far right of many contemporary questions, as well as in the middle. Still it is possible to speak of a Christian way of life, one that is informed by the call to discipleship and service. The inherent worth of every person as one who has been created in the image of God, the sanctity of human life and thus of marriage and the family, the imperative to strive for justice even in a fallen world—all of these are dynamic moral commitments that Christians would accept, however much their own conduct may fall short of these norms. It is evident already from the pages of the New Testament that the task of working out the implications of the ethic of love under the conditions of existence has always been difficult, and that there has, in fact, never been a “golden age” in which it was otherwise.
Certainly Christians would all affirm that Jesus’ life and example should be followed and that his teachings about love and fellowship should be the basis of human relations. Large parts of his teachings have their counterparts in the sayings of the rabbis—that is, after all, what he was—or in the wisdom of Socrates and Confucius. In Christian teaching, Jesus cannot be less than the supreme preacher and exemplar of the moral life, but for most Christians that, by itself, does not do full justice to the significance of his life and work. Basically, one would find the fundamental fact that Ethics in Christianity largely rely on the teaching about love. The teaching on love is found and adapted basically from the Torah in the Old Testament; and importantly quoted and taught by Jesus Christ and the writer of Johannine epistles throughout the four Gospels and the epistle 1 John; and the apostle Paul especially in letters to the Romans and Corinthians. Therefore, some thoughtful Christians attributed Christianity as a love religion.
There are four main themes to Jesus’ teaching:
(a) God’s rule is more important than anything else in life. Because God’s rule is so important, Jesus called upon people to repent and to turn away from evil. God’s rule is not something in the distant future; God is already present as King. People must be prepared at any time to give account of their lives to God. They must be ready to give up everything else in order to win a share in His Kingdom. Only those who keep God’s laws in their inmost thoughts truly love Him. Those who do this, and search for God’s kingdom in all things, are the people who are truly happy. To find out God’s will and to do it is the most important thing in life. Jesus made God’s rule the one aim of His whole life. ‘My food’, He said, ‘is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish His work’ (Jn 4:34). He Himself spent long hours in quiet prayer to God.
(b) God cares for all. Jesus made friends of all, even of those who did not keep the strict laws of the Jewish religion. He told three stories in which He taught how God cares for people:
- God, He said, is like a shepherd who searches for a sheep which has strayed.
- God is like a careful housewife. She will turn the whole house upside down in order to find a coin which she has lost.
- God is like a father, who waits patiently for his foolish son to return home, and welcomes him unconditionally when he comes.
Jesus based his teachings on the Torah, but extended the earlier commandments into truly radical ethics. Once when a large number of people had come to listen to him and to be healed, he delivered a major discourse, known as the “Sermon on the Mount” (Matthew 5-7). According to the gospel account, he said, “Love your enemies; do good to those who hate you; bless those who curse you; pray for those who treat you spitefully. When a man hits you on the cheek, offer him the other cheek too; when a man takes your coat, let him have your shirt as well. Give to everyone who asks you; when a man takes what is yours, do not demand it back. Treat others as you would like them to treat you. If you love only those who love you, what credit is that to you? Even sinners love those who love them ….”
Jesus’ main commandment was to love God and our fellow humans sincerely, rather than professing piety without practicing it. He taught that God is merciful and forgiving to those who truly repent of their sins; those who make an outward show of piety and consider themselves superior cannot draw close to God. Those who are especially blessed are the gentle in spirit, the sorrowful, the pure in heart, those who know they need God, who long to do what is right, who are merciful to others, who make peace, who suffer persecution for the cause of right. Our prayers should be utterly private and based in the faith that “our Father” knows what we need without our asking. We should do good deeds so secretly that when we give to the needy, one hand does not even know what the other is doing. We should seek the narrow gate to the kingdom of God: “The gate that leads to life is small and the road is narrow, and those who find it are few”.
One of the major teachings of Jesus is about the Kingdom of God. Sometimes Jesus seems to refer to this kingdom of God as an inner state of bliss which can be obtained only turning solely toward God. Although Jesus preached love and forgiveness, the gospels are full of vitriolic statements about the Jewish rabbis, priests, and legalists. It is possible that some of this material was added later to the Christian Bible to differentiate between the new Christians and Jews who were not followers of Jesus. Nevertheless, the attacks on religious managers ring with universal prophetic truth. According to the gospel accounts, Jesus reportedly said that humble children, repentant tax-gatherers, and prostitutes would enter the kingdom of God before the hypocritical religious authorities. He confronted them with the spiritual truth of their own scriptures, and referred to them as “blind guides, and if one blind man guides another they will both fall into the ditch”.
Muslims believe that God appointed human beings to be His agents on earth, and gave them the earth with all its resources. Because God created them and because God gave them the earth to live in, human beings are the servants of God. A human being can have no higher dignity than to be ‘a servant of God’, ’abdu Ilah.
Ethics and morality in Arabic are called Adab. It signifies disciplines of mind, or every praiseworthy discipline by which a man is excellently trained. Good morals and good manners represent the real test of man’s excellence. Islamic ethics and morality embrace all those moral virtues known to any advanced civilization such as goodness, sincerity, honesty, humility, justice, politeness, patience, straight-forwardness, veracity, sympathy and other ethical instructions and rules of conduct.
One of the most widely known, in Islam ethical teaching is The Shari’a (The Law of Islam). All Muslims should follow this Shari’a, which is taught by the Koran and by the sunna of the Prophets. The Shari’a is a path of conduct which is clearly marked and which all Muslims follow. The Shari’a includes the whole conduct of a person’s life: what he does at home and at business; his marriage and his rights of inheritance; his duties to the state, to his neighbors, to his relations and his family. It also includes the religious duties, which are popularly known as the Five Pillars of Islam. These duties are the acts of service, or worship, which a Muslim owes to God.  Therefore, Islam emphasizes the sovereign power of God. At the same time, Islam also teaches that every person is responsible for his own behavior and his own punishment.
Islamic ethics and morality as stated in the Holy Quran and the Hadiths are recommended, praised and enjoined upon Muslims by Islam. They cover the smallest details of domestic life as well as the broad aspects of national and international behavior. They guide the Muslims at every stage in life.
God said in the Holy Quran:
“The noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the best of you in conduct”. (49:13)
Prophet Muhammad said:
- “The best of you are those who have the most excellent morals”.
- “The most perfect of the believers in faith is the best of them in moral excellence”.
- “The believers whose faith are most perfect are those who have the character”. (Character is the sum total of all that is good and noble). 
Islamic Ethics and morality can be divided into two categories:
- Those which enable man to do good to others. This first class comprises all rules calculated to guide the intentions and actions of man in doing good to others by means of the faculties which God has granted him or in declaring the glory or honour of others or in forbearing from punishing an offender, or in punishing him in such a manner that the punishment turns to be a blessing for him.
- Those which enable man to abstain from inflicting injury upon his fellow-men. To this second class belong the rules of conduct which direct the intentions and actions of man so that he may not injure the life property or honour of his fellow-beings by means of his tongue, or hand, eye, or any other parts of his body.
As Islamic Ethics and Morality cover the smallest details of domestic life as well as the broad aspects of national and international behavior, it is a good idea to put the general outline of the contents written by Iljas Ismail. This contents reflects clear enough how ethics in Islam is broad and complete. Then, I will put some significant applications briefly from them.
I. A Muslim and a Believer
To be a Muslim and a Muslim’s beliefs are very much related each other with their ethical and moral life.
II. Regarding Goodness—Goodness to:
Parents, Wives and Children, Neighbors, Guests, Slaves and Servants, Fellow Muslims, All Mankind and All Creatures.
III. Regarding Manners—Manners of:
Doing Something, Offering Salam (salutation), Eating and Drinking, Entertainment, Entering and Coming out of the Closet, Bathing, Dressing, Sleeping, Praying, Visiting, Offering `Aqiqah, Reciting and Reading the Holy Quran, Teachers toward Students, Students toward Teachers, Earning Livelihood, Buying and Selling. Manner in: Sneezing and Yawning, Going to Mosque, Dealing with Mon-Muslim. Manners Relating to Service and Hadiths on Good and Bad Character Traits.
With regard to a Muslim and his/her belief a few lines may be taken here. E.g. a Muslim is a person who honestly believes in and professes faith in the oneness of Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad—a Muslim, therefore, is a believer. A Muslim is a person who lives in perfect peace with others. A Muslim is one who makes his peace with God and man. The chief characteristics of a Muslim are love and sympathy.
In Hadiths of Prophet Muhammad, I mention some significant lines. For example:
1) “The truly religious man is he who will smile in the face of every one”.
2) “A Muslim who mixed with others and shares their burdens is better than one who lives a life of seclusion and contemplation”.
3) “The best Muslim house is that in which an orphan is well cared for; and the worst Muslim house is that in which an orphan is ill-treated”.
4) “He is the best of Muslims whose disposition is best; and the best of you are they who behave best to their wives”.
5) “Two qualities are not combined in any Muslim, avarice and bad disposition”.
6) “Do unto all men as you would wish to have been done unto you and reject for others what you would reject for yourself”.
7) “He is the best man whose life is long and his actions good. He is the worst man whose life is long and his actions bad”.
8) “The best of men is he who is (socially) the most useful”.
9) “The worst of men is a bad learned man and a good learned man is the best”.
10) “All Muslims are like one wall, some parts strengthening others in such a way that they support each other”.
11) “Muslims do not enter Paradise and do not reach the virtuous abode until they shall have discharged their debts”.
13) “A believer must speak only good words or remain silent.”
14) “It is not allowable for a man to come in between two people without their permission”.
15) “A Muslim owes to a Muslim six (duties) to be bestowed liberally:
a. he should offer him salutation (salam) when he meets him,
b. he should pray for him when he sneezes,
c. he should accept when he invites him,
d. he should visit him when he is sick,
e. he should follow his bier when he dies, and
f. he should love for him what he loves for himself.
With regard to Goodness, there are three stages in doing good:
- The lowest stage is that in which man does good to his benefactors only. One does good in return for good.
- The second stage is, that man does good because he expects thanks or prayers in return for the good he does. This infirmity of doing good is considered as without sincerity in the deed.
- The third stage has been taught by Islam which is free from every imperfection. This is the highest state and the best way of doing good. To attain this perfection, men should not think of the good he has done, nor expect even an expression of thanks from the person upon whom the benefit is conferred.
Some ethical applications regarding Goodness are worthy to mention. Goodness to one’s parents occupies a very high place in the moral code and ethics of Islam. The mother comes first so much so that paradise is said to be beneath the mother’s feet. Islam expects the children to behave according to their parents. Obedience to parents in Islam is placed next to submission to Allah, for among fellow-beings none has greater claim upon a person than his parents. Moreover, obedience to parents is seed from which springs the great obligation of obedience to all constituted authority, if the child is properly taught this lesson.
Besides the obligations of the husband towards the wife or wives and the parents toward the children, as stated in the Islamic Law, a Muslim is enjoined by Islam to keep the wives in good fellowship. The best of man according to Islam is said to be one who is kindest to his wife. It is counted among the highest virtues. Islam has assigned to man a position of authority so that he may maintain order and discipline as the chief of the household, while the wife is a ruler over the house of her husband and his children. The home in Islam is thus a kingdom in miniature, where authority is exercised by both the husband and the wife. A Muslim also is enjoined by Islam to be kind and lovable to children especially orphans. Besides a father being bound to maintain his sons until they attain puberty, and his daughters until they are married, he is enjoined to be kind and lovable to them.
A Muslim must treat his neighbors kindly, whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims. He should not do any harm to them. The sending of gifts to neighbor is recommended by Islam. Islam requires all neighbors to be loving and cooperate with one another and share one another’s sorrows and happiness. It enjoins that they should they should establish social relations in which one could depend upon the others and regard his life, honour and property safe among his neighbors. A Muslim is enjoined also to honor his guest whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims. A Muslim is enjoined by Islam to consider a slave and a servant as his brother and sister and must be treated kindly. He must be kind and generous to them, and must in all other matters be treated on the basis of equality.
A Muslim is enjoined by Islam to be good to all mankind regardless of their religion, Muslim or non- non-Muslim alike and to respect them. Islam allows the slaughter of animal for food, but has forbidden killing them merely for fun or sport and depriving them of their lives unnecessarily. Islam does not approve even of the useless cutting of trees and bushes. Man can use their fruits and other produce, but he has no right to destroy them.
There are many much more detailed ethical application regarding manners of a people’s in social and community living. Some of them are valuable to mention. In order to live peacefully and well for the purposes of worshipping God and performing other duties toward his creator and his fellow human beings in this earth, a Muslim is required to take food and drink. Some of the golden rule regarding what one eats and drinks in Islam to mention are: using the right hand in eating, washing the hands before and after a meal, eating a little salt before starting a meal, cleansing the mouth with water after taking food, one should eat from the side nearest to him, one should not leave anything on his eating plate after eating, food and drink must not be blown into, etc.
Taking a bath once a week is the minimum requirement. The whole body as well as the head must be washed by both men and women at least once a week. It is obligatory for every Muslim male and female to cover his/her private parts with any material that is not transparent at a time of prayer as well as at other times. The private parts of male and slave girl is between the knee and the navel. The private parts of free women is all parts of her body except her face and her hand up to her wrists. To be naked even in private (except in case of necessity) is forbidden. Wearing silk is prohibited for men except for a good reason. Men may wear a silver ring but not a gold one. Wedding dress is the most important adornment in one’s life. On this occasion the bride and the bridegroom will wear the best dresses they have.
According to Islam, a man in his earthly existence should rest and sleep as one of his duties toward his physical body. He should not neglect the right of that part of his body such as his brain, eye, etc. Visiting one another is one way of making close relations and establishing love between Muslims, but frequent visits may lessen this closeness and love. Permission is required before entering any private house and greetings should be given to the occupant. Visiting the sick is one of the six duties of a Muslim towards his brother Muslims.
Islam considers perfect moral character superior to learning, and makes it the basis of the success of both teacher and student. Islam considers teachers as the spiritual parents of the students. Parents nourish the physical body of the students, while the teachers refine their morals, educate their spirits, propagate virtue, teach them propriety, and prepare them for a life full of sincerity and purity. The students’ goal in Islam education must not be to obtain power, money, or glory, or to act insolently, or compete with his fellows, he is limited to moral education and virtues. Therefore, several specific duties of teachers as well as students are prescribed. Islam exhorts a man to work for a living and strongly disapproves one remaining idle and jobless. Every man must earn his own living.
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Yoshinori, Takeuchi (ed.), Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1995.
 Mary Pat Fisher, World Religions in the 21st century (London: Calmann & King Ltd., 1999), p. 102.
 Ibid., p. 26.
 David A. Brown, A Guide to World Religions. TEF Guide 12 (Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1976), p. 79.
 Mary P. Fisher, p. 103.
 Ibid., p. 104.
 Jesuit Scholars (eds.), Religious Hinduism (Allahabad: St. Paul Publications, 1968), p. 109.
 Ibid., p. 110.
 Ibid., p. 111.
 Ibid., p. 112.
 Ibid., p. 115.
 Ibid., p. 117.
 Ibid., pp. 117-121.
 Ibid., p. 117.
 S. A. Nigosian, World Religions: A Historical Approach (Boston/New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000), p. 23.
 Jesuit Scholars, p. 119.
 Ibid., p. 120.
 Ibid., pp. 122-125.
 David A. Brown, p. 76.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 D. A. Brown, p. 79.
 Ibid., p. 79.
 Ibid., p. 80.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 Sillard G. Oxtoby (ed.), World Religions: Western Traditions (Toronto/New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 73.
 Arthur Hertzberg, Judaism (New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1962), p. 72.
 Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco: Harper, 1991), p. 286.
 Arthur Hertzberg, pp. 73-74.
 David A. Brown, A Guide to World Religions. TEF Guide 12 (Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1976), p. 117.
 Ibid., p. 119.
 Ibid., p. 119.
 Ibid., p. 120.
 Arthur Hertzberg, pp. 73-74.
 Ibid., pp. 190-192.
 David A. Brown. p. 120.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 David A. Brown, p. 127.
 Ibid., p. 128.
 Ibid., p. 129.
 Takeuchi Yoshinori (ed.), Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1995), p. 16.
 Ibid., p. 16.
 Ibid., p. 17.
 Eugene W. Lyman, Religion and the Issues of Life (New York: Association Press, 1943), pp. 71, 82.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.
 David A. Brown, pp. 155-157.
 Mary P. Fisher, p. 56.
 Ibid., p. 57.
 David A. Brown, A Guide to Religions. SPCK TEF Study Guide 12 (Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1976), pp. 208, 210.
 Ibid., pp. 211-213.
 Ustas Iljas Ismail, Islamic Ethics and Morality (Manila, Philippines: R. P. Garcia Publishing Co. Inc., 1981), Introduction page 1.
 Ibid., page 2.
 Ibid., p. 1.
 Ibid., pp. 2-5.
 Ibid., p. 7.
 Ibid., pp. 9-10.
 Ibid., pp. 11, 13.
 Ibid., pp. 16, 19, 21.
 Ibid., pp. 25-27.
 Ibid., pp. 47-55.
 Ibid., pp. 56, 72, 74.
 Ibid., pp. 89-93, 95, 102.